Text encoding


Intralinear markers

Columns are indicated by Arabic numerals to conform to the published edition of the text. When a column is omitted in the published edition, this column receives an "a" (e.g. 3a refers to the column following 3 omitted in column numeration in the published edition of the text). When a break in the text precludes the clear delimitation of columns, the designation ?+ is utilized to reflect the unknown number of columns.
When column sequence is to be inverted, column numeration continues sequentially, and an ! follows the column number.

The front and back of a tablet are designated as:

r front
v back

Writing on the edges of a tablet is designated as:

te top edge
be bottom edge
le left edge
re right edge

- to top -



Graphic unit

Lower case glyphs for syllabic values
Upper case glyphs for logograms
An * preceding upper case glyphs for unknown readings

- to top -



Numerals

Arabic numerals are used exclusively, and are written so as to preserve the manner in which they appear graphically in the text. A hyphen (-) separates the groups of units, tens and sixty-signs. For example, the number 94 is transliterated as 60-30-4; 60 represents one sign, 30 represents three tens and 4 represents four units. Optionally, in cases of textual ambiguity, an abbreviation is added to render more explicitly the form of the sign (whether curviform or wedge), and the graphic orientation of the sign. Curviform signs are defined as those signs formed with the blunt cylindrical end of the stylus.


(w) wedge (c) curviform
(wh) horizontal wedge-shaped (ch) horizontal curviform-shaped
(wv) vertical wedge-shaped (cv) vertical curviform-shaped
(ws) slanted wedge-shaped (cs) slanted curviform-shaped

Fractions are written as 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, and are connected to whole numbers with a hyphen (-).

- to top -



Condition of text

X a single unreadable sign
N a single unreadable sign representing a numeral
... undefined sequence of broken signs
[ ] restored
< > added by modern editor
<< >> mistakenly written by scribe
[( )] indicates that there may or may not be a sign present in a break
(< >) indicates an uncertain insertion by the modern editor
? after sign for uncertain reading
! after sign for abnormal graphic writing
!! after sign for divergence from published transliteration
!!! after sign designating both abnormal graphic writing and divergence from published transliteration

- to top -



Graphic relationships

(carriage return) line boundary
(blank) word boundary
- sign boundary
. intralogographic boundary (e.g. PA.TE for EN5)
: reflects written order of sign sequence where it is presumed that the signs should be read in inverted fashion (e.g. *NE:ma2-=KI for ma2-*NE-=KI)
@+ ligature (e.g. a@+na)
× inclusion (e.g. KAxME)
@\ following a "tenu:" sign (e.g. MAxGANA2@\)
@; following a "gunu:" sign (e.g. GIR2@;)
@/ in front of a sign written obliquely
@| between two or more signs which appear vertically atop each other (e.g. AN@|AN)
@# before a sign written upside down (e.g. @#UD)

The following designations are used exclusively to clarify graphic relationships of numerals:

+ used in broken contexts to reflect that the numerals so connected are regarded as a unit (e.g. [5+]3)
-: indicates that the number which follows qualifies the preceding sign or sequence of signs (e.g. sa-ha-wa-:2)
:- indicates that the number which precedes qualifies the following sign or sequence of signs (e.g. 2 3:-*NI)
+: indicates that the numeral is written as a ligature (e.g. ÍB+:2)
x: indicates that the numeral is written as an inclusion (e.g. ÍBx:2)

- to top -



Word level code

Determinatives
Preposed determinatives are immediately followed by = and the sign boundary - (e.g. DINGIR=-ʾà-da; GIŠ=-GEŠTIN).
Postposed determinatives are immediately preceded by = which is preceded by the sign boundary designation - (e.g. ib-la-=KI; GA-RAŠ-=SAR; ʾà-da-um-=TÚG).


Phonetic complements
Preposed phonetic complements are followed by the symbols =+.
Postposed phonetic complements are preceded by the symbol += (e.g. LIM=+*LULIM+=LU; here LIM is a preposed complement while LU is a postposed complement.